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Indus Valley Civilization - IAS Study Material - Part 2

Chief City of Indus Civilization, their status and specialty:


Harappan is located in Shahival district of the Punjab province of Pakistan. First, in 1853 General Cunningham surveyed this place, but he could not understand the significance of this place. Later, under the leadership of Jan Marshal in 1921, Raibahadur Dayaram Sahni excavated and brought this broad civilization to light. In the remains of Harappa, fortification, protection ramparts, houses, granary are important. The fort is located on the west side of the city, which is to protect it. There were rooms and courtyards in every house of Harappa, but there are no evidence of well had been found in the houses like Mohenjodaro.

Also Read: Indus Valley Civilization Part 1 -  English 

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Quiz Based On Indus Civilization : English


Mohenjodaro, which means the Mound of the dead, was first discovered by Rakhaldas Banerjee in 1922. This is also a fortification located in the western part of the city. Its main feature was the road. This road divides one another in the right direction in the right angle, dividing the city into several quadrangular sections. For dry cleaning of roads, garbage and paved drains were made on both sides of the road, which was covered with stone slabs. The ratio of brick was 4: 2: 1. There were three types of buildings in Indus Civilization – Residential house, huge building, public baths. On this, the doors and windows of the buildings opened towards the open streets, not towards the main road. Here are the major residues received from this place which have Granary, Great Bath and Assembly Hall etc.
Great Bath – This is the most prominent place of the Mohenjodaro, whose length is 180 ‘(54.86 meters) and width 108’ (33 meters). A reservoir is situated in the middle of it, which is 11 meters long, 7 meters wide and 2.4 meters deep. The base of the floor is made of solid bricks and gypsum has been used for connecting. There were three verandas on the three sides and behind them were many rooms, one of them had a well, which used to fill the water in this reservoir. Tanks were constructed to get water. Perhaps the bath was used for the general public and also used for religious activities.
Granary – A house is found on a terrace in the west of the great bath whose upper structure was made of bamboo which has now been destroyed. There are a total of 27 rooms in which space has also been made for air. Perhaps this was a public warehouse where grains used to be taxed by the public were kept.
Assembly Hall – This is a building with pillars located in the south of the fort, in which the ruins of 20 square columns of bricks have been found. They have four cuts and each has 5 to 5 columns. It was used for public meetings.


It was an industrial center from where the bead manufacturing factory was found. There is no evidence of fortifications from here.


Here the fort and lower city are surrounded by the same wall without separation. There is an evidence of weights made of stone. Perhaps this was the city of prosperous people. It is the only city with Radial Street.


A dog has been buried with a man in a graveyard of it


This is the largest place of Harappa civilization. Two silver crowns have been obtained from this site located in Haryana.


It is also called the third capital of the Indus Civilization. A farming farm has been received from it and raw bricks were used here for constructing the buildings. Paved bricks were used only in making drains, wells etc. The people here knew to grow two crops also. A tandoor has been found here, which is exactly like the tandoor used at present. From here there are no evidence of public drains and the water of houses falls into the sink. This was done only by hollowing the wood and used as drains.


This was the oldest known dockyard in the world from where the trade was probably done till the Persian Gulf. This is also called “Dock of the Ship“. From here the scales and the plumb are found. It is also called Miniature Harappa or Small Mohenjodaro. Dual flooding, Agni-Vedika, horse terracotta statue etc. has been obtained from here.

Surkotda :

From here the evidence of the new method of burying has been received. Sculptures of the horse have also been received from here.


This is the second largest city of Indus civilization. It is divided into three parts – Fort, Middle town, Lower city. From here, white-polished stone blocks have been obtained from which it is known that Indus people knew the art of polishing. Large stone architecture is found here, with 10 large letters written.
Points to Remember –
The Pashupati seal – A seal from Mohenjodaro is depicted sitting in front of a person who is wearing a crown of three horns. On the right side, elephants and tigers while rhino and buffalo are engraved on the left side. The two deer below the Aasana is also inscribed. It has been referred to as Pashupati.
The Bronze made dancing Girl from Mohenjodaro – This is the world’s oldest bronze statue received from Mohenjodaro. It appears in the triangle posture of the Indian Classical dance Odissi, holding hands on his waist. In his left hand bangles and neck is wearing a necklace in nakedness.
The Stone made statue of Yogi – It is found from Mohenjodaro. The statue of the priest is covered with a Teepatiya Shawl. Its eyes are half opened which exhibits its being in meditation. It is wearing a fillet on the head.

Also Read: Indus Valley Civilization Part 1 -  English 

Want to Read Offline or Print - Get Free PDF Here

Quiz Based On Indus Civilization : English

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