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Indus Valley Civilization - IAS Study Material - Part 1



Prehistoric – a time in which humans did not submit any written description.
History – a period whose written description is available and which can be read.
Proto Historic – a period whose written material is available but it could not be read yet.
After the end of the Stone Age, humans had learned to use metals. First of all, humans used copper, after which the iron was used. Even after having knowledge of metals, humans did not stop using stone tools. In Baluchistan and Sind region, the former bronze aged harappan civilization used Pandu (light pink) and red color of pottery.
In 1863, Roberts Bruce Foot was the first person to find complete stone carvings in India from the place called Pallavaram (Tamilnadu).

Also Read: Indus Valley Civilization Part 2 -  English 

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Quiz Based On Indus Civilization : English

Harappan and Indus Valley Civilization: Bronze Civilization – (2400 AD – 1700 AD)

The Indus Civilization was first discovered by General  Cunningham in 1853 but he did not understand its importance. Later it was discovered by Rai Bahadur Dayaram Sahni in 1921 under the leadership of John Marshall. It was a civil civilization. Harappa and Mohenjodaro, the two big cities of this civilization, are called the twin capital of the elite empire. According to some scholars, Kalibangan was the third capital of Harappa civilization. The city was divided into two parts – the fort and the lower city. The fort was used for huge buildings such as Great Bath, Auditorium, Granary, Administrative buildings etc. In the lower town the general public lived. Only Dholavira was divided into three parts – The fort, Middle city and the lower city.
Points to Remember:
  • This civilization is known for its urban configuration and city planning and it was mainly business-business-oriented civilization.
  • The only source of information about the Harappan civilization is the archaeological excavation and the idols, utensils, jewelry, weapons, tools etc. from it. This Civilization had no knowledge of iron and was not even familiar with the sword.
  • It was maternal civilization. His script was Pictographic and symbolic, writing from right to left, which has not yet been read. Approximately 400 characters have been found in their script.
  • The word Meluha was used by the people of Mesopotamia for the Indus Valley civilization.
  • Their main crops were wheat and barley, and they also used honey.
  • The unit of weights was in proportion to 16. People of this civilization were not familiar with iron.
  • These people used to worship the Mother Goddess most of the time, as well as worshiped this gender worship, Shiva worship, Goddess of fertility. The Swastika symbol is the responsibility of this civilization.
  • These people used dark-colored red clay utensils.
  • The humpback bull kept the important place in this civilization. They used cotton and woolen cloth. Cotton was first cultivated by the people of Indus Valley civilization.
  • The practice of burning and burial of the dead was both prevailing. Burying in Harappa and doing Dharma-Karma in Mohenjodaro. Apart from this, there is also evidence of some partial inflammatory action.
  • The statue of the Yogi and the idol of a bronze-made dancer are found from Mohenjodaro. The statue of Mother Goddess has been received from Harappa. Two statues of two cows have been received from Lothal.
  • Evidence of filling of red colored vermilion has been found in some women idols of Naushro and Mehrgarh.
  • The remains of horse bones have been found from Surkotda, Kalibangan and Lothal.
  • On their seals is the shape of an animal or a human, and along with some letters are engraved. They engraved the shape of animals like humpback bull, tiger, elephant, goat, rhinoceros, unicorn etc in their seals. The use of a pierced seal would probably be used as a talisman.
Port Cities: Lothal, Balakot, Kuntasi, Allahdino, Sutkangedor.
The major cities of this civilization are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Lothal, Rakhigadi etc.
SiteExcavatorsRiversState / Country
HarappaDayaram Sahni
Madhoswarup Vats
RaviMontgomery (Pakistan)
MohenjodaroRakhaldas BanerjeeIndusSind province (Pakistan )
RakhigadiSurajbhanSaraswatiHaryana
KotdijiFazal AhmedIndusSind province (Pakistan )
KalibanganB B Lal
B K Thapar
GhaggarHanumangarh (Rajasthan)
ChanhudaroGopal MajumdarIndusSind Province  (Pakistan)
RangpurRangNath RavMadarKathiyawad  (Gujarat)
LothalRangNath RavBhogawaAhmedabad  (Gujarat)
RoparYagdatta SharmaSatalajPunjab (India)
AlamgirpurYagdatta SharmaHindanMerath (UP)
SutkangedorAurel Stein
George F Dales
DashtMakran (Pakistan)
DholaviraRavindra Singh BistKatcha (Gujarat)
BanawaliRavindra Singh BistRangoiHisar (Haryana)
MandaJ P JoshiChenabJammu (Jammu & Kashmir)
This civilization was related to other contemporary civilizations (Mesopotamia, Iran, Afghanistan etc.) from which they used to trade.
ImportsFrom
AmethystSaurashta (Maharashtra )
GoldKolar(Karnataka), Persian (Iran), Afghanistan
SilverPersian (Iran), Afghanistan, South India
CopperBaluchistan, Khetari (Rajasthan)
TinAfghanistan, Bihar
SteatiteIran, Pakistan
Lapis Lazuli & SapphireAfghanistan
JadeCentral Asia
Also Read: Indus Valley Civilization Part 2 -  English 

Want to Read Offline or Print - Get Free PDF Here

Quiz Based On Indus Civilization : English



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